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Freckles are an example of pigmentation. They are characterized by tanned looking brown spots that are circular. Their sizes are typically small and can be compared to the head of a normal nail. These brown spots are random in nature although there have been proven studies that show that freckles can occur after prolonged exposure in the sun. This type of skin condition is common in people of fair skin. Rarely are there cases of dark skinned people having freckles.

On an individual, the color of freckles will remain constant on the whole body, but when compared to other people it may differ in that some will have black, brown, red, tan or yellow freckles. The common factor is that freckles are usually darker than the surrounding skin and are easy to spot on some people. For most people with freckles, it will be noted that they become darker and more visible in the summer due to the exposure to sunlight but will become lighter and less visible during the cold months.

Freckles come about as a result of an increased production of melanin, the pigment that gives the skin its color, as opposed to the belief that it is the number of pigment producing cells that increase which are known as melanocytes. There is a difference.

There are two types of freckles and these are simple freckles and sunburn freckles. The two differ in that simple freckles are usually small and round in appearance and tan in color while sunburn freckles are darker in appearance and have irregular borders such that they do not appear round in any way. Sunburn freckles are also much larger and can match the size of a pencil eraser, they can also be called age spots or liver spots. Simple freckles are common on the face, neck and arms while sunburn freckles are common on the back, arms and any place that can get severely burned when exposed to the sun.